“Upbringing of persistence in children aged 6-7 years old in process of physical training (evidence from Horting). Reporter Eduard Yeremenko
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“Upbringing of persistence in children aged 6-7 years old in process of physical training (evidence from Horting)"
Actuality of the research. This dissertation study has been carried out with the aim to determine the main measures for education of persistence in children of primary school age (6-7 years old). It is devoted to determination of educational conditions oriented onto formation of persistence in children of the above age group in the process of Horting trainings.
The informative methods and criterions of persistence estimation in children of primary school we used during the study. We determined that evidence of persistence in 6-7 years old children depends on their physical readiness and functional mobility of nervous processes. Mentioned age groups are characterized by such conditions as primary level of persistence manifestations as well as significant increase of physical abilities that can be considered as positive (sensitive) ones for further formation of persistence in these children. We provide theoretical reasoning background and experimental study of pedagogical methods for education of persistency in children within the process of physical training during the out-of-school time on the basis of Horting and its influence on development of such character features as speed, strength, endurance and education of moral qualities.
This background provides the study relevance, its aim, task, object, subject, research methods, scientific novelty and practical value of the work. Additional information on study’s result approbation and dissertation structure is also included.
Children age of 6-7 years old – is one of the main important transition periods in human living that turns an early childhood to a conscious one. Children need especial attention within this period in respect of their will hardening and education of persistence that may be useful for the whole life. One of the most difficult and meaningful problems of education is education of will which in turns forms ability of the person consciously direct its actions respecting the established targets and objectives as well as development of strength to overcome difficulties.
Qualities of will include persistency and perseverance, goal orientation, decisiveness and courage, moderation and self-command, initiativity and self-dependence.
Horting as a kind of sport represents both the martial art and complex system of children and youth education for healthy way of living and positive living position. These important human qualities tightly connected with development of persistence abilities for achievement of current aim. Nowadays our society more and more recognises importance of education for a new generation of specialists in all activity spheres. Problem of physical and mental strengthening among children is one of the main tasks of the international society.
In this scope, Horting is a system of education which is based on cultural, sport and martial traditions. It is an acting mechanism for comprehensive education of children. Pupils make the main part of the society potential for the first half of the 21st century. They will have to solve difficult social and economic problems, to build our country, to strengthen its position in international society. Education and health of youth is one of the main tasks determined by the State laws and regulations: “Law of Ukraine on physical culture and sport” (1993), State program of physical culture and sport development in Ukraine (1996), Targeting complex program “Physical training – health of the nation” (1998), Concept of physical training in education system of Ukraine (1997), Decree of physical training and sport in Ukraine (2004) etc.
Recent changes in social and political life of our country demand serious changes in the process of children’s education, starting from primary school age. That is why Horting trainings are recommended to be started from the age of 5-6-7 years, as it is the most appropriate age for development of all personal behavior qualities. Transition of our country to the new international standards of education requires implementation of new inventions and ways of realization of the State targeting program of education. This issue has been approved by the Constitution of Ukraine, Law of Ukraine “On education”, “On physical culture and sport”, Targeting complex program “Physical training – health of the nation”, Concept of physical training in education system of Ukriane.
Scientists (E.S. Vilchkovskiy, 2003; L.V. Volkov, 2003; E.P. Iliyn, 2001; K.P. Kozlova, 2004; T.Y. Krutsevich, 1998 et al.) state that physical training exercises make wider the range of functional abilities as well as develop ability to overcome the difficulties and barriers. In process of physical training and sports in school the number of significant qualities develop in children such as persistency, discipline, self-command, perseverance etc. (G.L. Apanasenko, 1997; L.I.Bozhovich, 1989; B.M. Shiyan, 2004).
During investigation of persistency problem and its education very significant role was played by the works of I.D. Bekh, L.S. Vygotskiy, A.I. Visotskiy, V.A. Ivannikov, E.P. Iliyn, K.N. Kornilov, V.A. Krutetskiy, A.C. Puni, P.I. Rozmyslov, S.M. Rives, P.A. Rudik, V.I.Selivanov, B.M. Smirnov, K.D. Ushinskiy, O.A. Chernikova, T.I.Shulga, I. W. Atkinson, G.H. Litwin, L.H. Farber, P.Ricoeur et al. But the specialists’ recommendations in literature regarding education of persistence (M.I. Brihtsin, 1989; P.A. Rudik, 1994; V.I. Selivanov, 1989; T.I. Shulga, 1997) are oriented onto the sports activities, and as a rule do not cover peculiarities of age groups as well as persistence education in children of 6-7 years old.
In spite of the conducted researches in this area many questions are still to be solved. Particularly there is no a unified opinion regarding psychological structure of volitional actions and their induction mechanism as well as established measures for education of persistence in children of 6-7 years old. Specialized literature overview allows considering the aspects of persistence formation in children on the fights classes in the out-of-school groups to be not sufficiently investigated. Contents, forms and methods of persistence education in children of mentioned age in the process of general physical culture have not been outlined as well. Questions of persistence diagnostics, its age-dependent development and correlation with biological and social factors require further investigation.
As a result of insufficient investigation of these mechanisms all recommendations of specialists (V.K. Viliunas, G.M. Gagaeva, M.G. Ozolin, V.M. Platonov, A.C. Puni, А.О.Romanov, R.Z.Shaihtdinov, E.P.Scherbakov et al) in psychological and pedagogical literature in respect of persistence education describe mainly sport activities and do not cover age peculiarities. That is why on the classes of the first and second year of trainings in children sport schools or physical training lessons studying of movements and functional exercises are not sufficiently conformed with the educational tasks. According to the Horting training program children can enter the sport school or group starting from the age of 6. So the age when a child goes to school is same for getting into an educational-training group. All mentioned above appoints the relevance of chosen theme and testifies the necessity in special investigations in this field.
Object of the research: persistence of children of 6-7 years old, who train Horting.
Subject of the research: pedagogical measures for education of persistence in children of 6-7 years old, who attend educational-training classes of Horting.
Aim of the research: is a theoretical justification and experimental approbation of pedagogical ideas, measures and methods for education of persistence in children of 6-7 years old evidenced from Horting.
Hypothesis of the research: research hypothesis represents an admission that upbringing of persistence in children of 6-7 years old in process of Horting trainings is effective if development of all volitional qualities is concerted with formation of motional skills as well as development of physical abilities. It requires planning and selection of appropriate pedagogical methods as well as creation of pedagogical conditions that provide the following:
- Systematic increase of objective and subjective difficulties in process of physical training; recognition of significance of the desired goal by the children, concretization of tasks for the nearest and distant prospect;
- Formation of confidence in own strength in small sportsmen;
- Formation of confident desire for self perfection;
- In time and objective evaluation of the trainings results by the trainer of Horting;
- Formation of persistence, self-control and self-assessment during initial basic training technique of Horting and common developing and special exercises for children.
The following tasks laid down for realisation of the research aim:
To investigate the issue in psychological and pedagogical literature as well as in theory and practice of education;
To investigate the correlation between the components and structure of physical readiness or unreadiness of children of 6-7 years old;
To determine diagnostic means and evaluation criterions for persistence of pupils of 6-7 years old in process of Horting trainings;
To find out the peculiarities of developmental age, to investigate age dynamics and specifics of persistence education in children of primary school age in process of Horting trainings;
To develop and to probate experimentally the effectiveness of the pedagogical conditions for education of persistence in children of 6-7 years old in process of Horting trainings.
Research methods. The following methods were used in the research:
- Theoretical literature analysis and accumulation of modern pedagogical practical issues;
- Pedagogical experiment;
- Pedagogical testing;
- Pedagogical supervision;
- Questionnaire survey;
- Method of expert evaluation;
- Anthropometric methods;
- Methods of mathematical statistics.
THE CONTENTS OF THE THESIS
Chapter I. Education of persistence in children of 6-7 years old in process of physical training as a pedagogical problem (evidence from Horting)
1.1 Theoretical basics of persistence education in children of 6-7 years old in process of physical training evidenced from Horting
1.2 Essence, origin and development of physical training and educational principles in Horting
1.3 Classification of educational principles in Horting as a kind of sport
Conclusion to chapter I
Chapter II. Research and experimental probation of persistence education efficiency in children of 6-7 years old in process of physical training evidenced from Horting
2.1 Organization and techniques for conduction of experimental works
2.2 Pedagogical model and techniques for education of persistence in children of 6-7 years old in process of physical training evidenced from Horting
2.3 Comparative analysis of the research results
Conclusion to chapter II
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